November 25, 2021
ISHF on Scientific and Training Conference on Child Nutrition, Krakow

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Experts from the International Science and Health Foundation at the “6th Scientific and Training Conference took part in Child Nutrition. Challenges of negative pediatric dietetics” November 19-20, 21, Krakow.

Dr Katarzyna Maresz, President of ISHF, speaks about Vitamin K and its role in the development of children. Due to the transformation of food habits in developed countries over the last five decades, vitamin K and specifically vitamin K2 intakes among parents and their offspring have decreased significantly resulting in serious health implications. Therapeutics used in pediatric practice (antibiotics and glucocorticoids) are also to blame for this situation.

Low vitamin K status is much more frequent in newborns, due to both endogenous and exogenous insufficiencies. Just after birth vitamin K stores are low, and since human milk is relatively poor in this nutrient, breast-fed infants are at particular risk of a bleeding disorder called vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

A pilot study showed that better vitamin K status is associated with lower rate of low-energy fracture incidence. An ongoing clinical trial is intended to address whether vitamin K2 and D3 supplementation might positively impact the biological process of bone healing. Vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 ( MK-7 ) has a documented history of safe and effective use.

The lack of adverse effects of MK-7 makes it the ideal choice for supplementation by pregnant and nursing women, and children – healthy as well as those severely disabled or suffering from various malabsorptions and health disorders like dyslipidemia, diabetes, thalassemia major (TM), cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and chronic liver diseases. Worth consideration is also the use of vitamin K2 in obesity-related health outcomes.
November 2, 2021
Rationale for a Vitamin K2 and Vitamin D3 Intervention Trial in Children and Adolescents with Low-Energy Bone Fractures

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President of the ISHF, Dr. Katarzyna Maresz co-authored publication on the role of vitamin K2 and D3 in children and adolescents. Below we present an abstract and a link to the entire text.

Background: The role of vitamin K2, especially menaquinone-7, has recently been highlighted in the literature and distinguished from vitamin K1 in maintaining calcium homeostasis and a healthy skeletal system. Epidemiological and clinical research provides a new nutritional paradigm for efficient and safe delivery of calcium that requires co-supplementation with the fat-soluble vitamins D and K.

Objective: We propose a prospective, three-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial (RDBPC), investigating the effects of vitamin D3 in the presence and absence of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7, MK-7) on the healing process of low-energy bone fractures in children and adolescents. Thus, information will be obtained regarding the role of vitamin K2 in the bone healing process.

Methods: Ninety pediatric patients with low blood levels of vitamin D and low energy bone fractures will be divided into three groups that receive daily for three-month identical soft gel capsules containing 2000 IU vitamin D3, 90 mcg of vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7 (MK-7) combined with 2,000 IU D3 or olive oil-containing placebo. Patients will visit the clinic on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12, and will be evaluated by X-ray regarding progress in bone union and range of joint motion. Blood samples will be collected in duplicates on day 0 and after the 3-month regimen. The blood samples will be analyzed for vitamin K (menaquinone-7, MK-7) and vitamin D as well as the bone turnover markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX).

Conclusions: This proposed nutritional regimen will provide new information regarding the ability of vitamins D3 and K (specifically MK-7) in combination therapy to heal and prevent low-energy fractures among children and young adults. It will also contribute to building the “bone bank,” therefore helping to prevent the risk of fractures in adulthood and the development of osteoporosis later in life.
September 29, 2021
ISHF on International Vitamin Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark

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The International Vitamin Conference took place in CopenhagenDenmark over the three days September 22-24, 2021. The program included 6 sessions all of which provide new knowledge on the vitamins. The conference was attended by international delegates. The Scientific Program included invited lectures as well as oral and poster presentations from submitted abstract.

Dr Katarzyna Maresz, President of ISHF, prepared a poster and a short presentation: Vitamin K2 as necessary nutrient to support the function of vitamin D and decrease D toxicity. Below we present an abstract.


Vitamins K2 and D3 are both fat – soluble vitamins that function synergistically. Unfortunately, deficiency of both these nutrients has been recognized worldwide and is associated with various health problems.

Observational studies

Observational studies have shown low vitamin K and D status is correlated with poor bone quality and higher fracture risk. In addition to impacting bone health, low vitamin K and D status is corelated with arterial stiffness and increased incidence of hypertension. Moreover, combined low vitamin D and K status has been shown to be synergistically associated with an unfavorable cardiac structure and with an increased risk of death.

Interventional studies

Interventional studies have proven that combining vitamins K2 and D3 positively impacted bone mineral density (BMD) in children, and clinical research on adults showed this combination is the most effective to improve BMD and inhibit bone loss. To date, clinical research showed positive effects of vitamins D and K2 on carotid intima-media thickness and insulin metabolism markers. New clinical trials are evaluating this vitamin combination’s efficacy in different health areas such as carotid artery disease, metabolic dysfunction, fracture healing, and respiratory infection such as COVID-19.


It is important to recommend co-supplementation of vitamins K2 and D3 for both safety and efficacy. There is a new hypothesis that vitamin D exerts toxicity by inducing a deficiency of vitamin K and increases intestinal calcium absorption and promotes hypercalcemia. That is why vitamin D3 supplementation can be considered safe and beneficial when it is paired with K2.